What is Hypertension, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Blood pressure is the force that puts pressure on the walls of blood vessels. Every time the heart beats, blood flows into the arteries. When your heart pumps blood, your blood pressure rises. This is called systolic pressure. When the heart is at rest, blood pressure drops between beats. 

This is called diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure measurement uses these two numbers. Usually, the systolic level is higher than or before the diastolic level. For example, 120/80 means 120 systolic and 80 diastolic.

The various signs that can indicate when someone is dealing with hypertension,

People often call hypertension a “silent killer” because the person who has it may not notice any signs of high blood pressure. If you don’t know you have high blood pressure, it can hurt your heart, blood vessels, and other organs, like your kidneys.

Your blood pressure should be checked frequently.

In extreme cases, high blood pressure can lead to:

  • Sweating
  • Anxiety
  • Sleeping problems
  • Blushing

However, most people with high blood pressure won’t have any symptoms at all.

If a person has a hypertensive crisis because of high blood pressure, they may get headaches and nosebleeds.

Here are the major causes of sudden high blood pressure that might trigger the condition,

Frequently, the cause of hypertension is unknown. Frequently, it is caused by an underlying condition.

Hypertension that is not caused by another condition or disease is referred to as primary or essential hypertension. If an underlying condition suddenly causes of high blood pressure, hypertension specialists refer to this as secondary hypertension.

Primary hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Obesity problems
  • Resistance to insulin
  • Excess salt consumption
  • Consumption of alcohol
  • Inactive lifestyle habits

Secondary hypertension has distinct causes and is a consequence of another health condition.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of hypertension because the kidneys are unable to filter fluid. This excess fluid causes high blood pressure. Similarly, hypertension can cause CKD.

Who is at high risk of getting affected by hypertension?

Age factor: 

The risk of developing pulmonary arterial hypertension increases with age. Men are more likely to have high blood pressure until approximately 64 years of age. After age 65, women are more likely to develop hypertension.

Overweight and being obese:

More blood is required to transport oxygen and nutrients to your tissues the more you weigh. As blood flow through your blood vessels increases, so does arterial wall pressure.

Being inactive:

Inactive individuals tend to have higher heart rates. The greater your heart rate, the harder your heart must work with each contraction, and the greater the force exerted on your arteries. Inactivity also increases the likelihood of being overweight.

Smoking tobacco:

Not only does smoking or chewing tobacco raise your blood pressure momentarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can also damage the inner lining of your arteries. This can narrow your arteries and increase your risk of hypertension. There is also evidence that exposure to secondhand smoke raises one’s risk of heart disease and other diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Inadequate potassium:

Potassium helps balance sodium levels in your cells. A proper potassium balance is essential for heart health. If you do not consume enough potassium in your diet or if you lose too much potassium due to dehydration or other health conditions, your blood sodium levels may rise. Hypertensive emergency treatment is given when there is a need to provide emergency treatment.

Consumption of high alcohol:

Heavy drinking and alcohol triggers can damage the heart over time. Blood pressure may be affected by more than one drink per day for women and more than two drinks per day for men.

If you consume alcohol, do so responsibly. This includes up to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. One drink is equal to 12 fluid ounces of beer, 5 fluid ounces of wine, or 1.5 fluid ounces of 80-proof liquor.

High-stress levels:

High-stress levels can cause a temporary rise in blood pressure. Stress-related behaviors such as overeating, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption can lead to further elevations in blood pressure.

Combination medications are also prescribed depending on the severity of the condition.

But Stage 1 hypertension treatment can be treated with home treatment and maintaining the blood pressure levels.

Blood pressure levels need to be maintained as a rise in their levels can affect various organs in the body. It is never too early to begin making healthy lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating healthier foods, and increasing physical activity. These are the most important ways to protect yourself from high blood pressure and its complications, such as heart attack and stroke.


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